Did you know The government says 2,000 units of vitamin D a day is safe for all adults to take without a doctor's supervision. Two thousand units a day will get about 80% of Americans to a vitamin D level of 35 ng/ml or higher with no risk of toxicity. The 20% of the Americans with levels still lower than that are almost all African-American (J Steroid Biochem. Mol Biol. 2005 Oct;97(1-2):13-9).
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble prohormones, the two major forms of which are vitamin D2 (or ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (or cholecalciferol). The term vitamin D also refers to metabolites and other analogues of these substances. Vitamin D3 is produced in skin exposed to sunlight, specifically ultraviolet B radiation.
Vitamin D plays an important role in the maintenance of organ systems.
Vitamin D regulates the calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood by promoting their absorption from food in the intestines, and by promoting re-absorption of calcium in the kidneys.
It promotes bone formation and mineralization and is essential in the development of an intact and strong skeleton.
It inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion from the parathyroid gland.
Vitamin D affects the immune system by promoting immunosuppression, phagocytosis, and anti-tumor activity.
Vitamin D deficiency can result from inadequate intake coupled with inadequate sunlight exposure, disorders that limit its absorption, conditions that impair conversion of vitamin D into active metabolites, such as liver or kidney disorders, or, rarely, by a number of hereditary disorders. Deficiency results in impaired bone mineralization, and leads to bone softening diseases, rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults, and possibly contributes to osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency may also be linked to many forms of cancer.
The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck, usually located behind the thyroid gland, which produce parathyroid hormone. In rare cases the parathyroid glands are located within the thyroid glands. Most often there are four parathyroid glands, but some people have six or even eight
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), or parathormone, is secreted by the parathyroid glands as a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids. It acts to increase the concentration of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood, whereas calcitonin (a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland) acts to decrease calcium concentration. PTH acts to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood by acting upon parathyroid hormone receptor in three parts of the body:
Disorders in the immune system can cause disease. Immunodeficiency diseases occur when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. Immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, or be produced by pharmaceuticals or an infection
autoimmune diseases result from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus type 1 and lupus erythematosus. These critical roles of immunology in health and disease are areas of intense scientific study.
Several forms of vitamin D have been described. The two major forms are vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol, and vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol.
Vitamin D1: molecular compound of ergocalciferol with lumisterol, 1:1
Vitamin D2: ergocalciferol or calciferol (made from ergosterol)
Vitamin D3: cholecalciferol (made from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin).
Vitamin D4: 22-dihydroergocalciferol
Vitamin D5: sitocalciferol (made from 7-dehydrositosterol)
Chemically, the various forms of vitamin D are secosteroids; i.e. broken-open steroids. The structural difference between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 is in their side chains. The side chain of D2 contains a double bond between carbons 22 and 23, and a methyl group on carbon 24.
Vitamin D2 is derived from fungal and plant sources, and is not produced by the human body. Vitamin D3 is derived from animal sources and is made in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol reacts with UVB ultraviolet light at wavelengths between 270?290 nm. These wavelengths are present in sunlight at sea level when the sun is more than 45 above the horizon, or when the UV index is greater than 3. At this solar elevation, which occurs daily within the tropics, daily during the spring and summer seasons in temperate regions, and almost never within the arctic circles, adequate amounts of vitamin D3 can be made in the skin only after ten to fifteen minutes of sun exposure at least two times per week to the face, arms, hands, or back without sunscreen. With longer exposure to UVB rays, an equilibrium is achieved in the skin, and the vitamin simply degrades as fast as it is generated.
In most mammals, including humans, D3 is more effective than D2 at increasing the levels of vitamin D hormone in circulation; D3 is at least 3-fold, and likely closer to 10-fold, more potent than D2. However, in some species, such as rats, vitamin D2 is more effective than D3. Both vitamin D2 and D3 are used for human nutritional supplementation, and pharmaceutical forms include calcitriol (1alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), doxercalciferol and calcipotriene.
Primary Responsibilities: - Observes and reports activities and incidents at an assigned client site, providing for the security and safety of client property and personnel. - Makes periodic patrols to check for irregularities and to inspect protection devices and fire control equipment. - Preserves order and may act to enforce regulations and directives for the site pertaining to personnel, visitors, and premises. - Controls access to client site or facility through the admittance process - Patrols assigned site on foot or in vehicle; checks for unsafe conditions, hazards, unlocked doors, security violations, blocked entrances and exits, mechanical problems, and unauthorized persons. - Protects evidence or scene of incident in the event of accidents, emergencies, or security investigations. - Responds to incidents of fire, medical emergency, bomb threat, flooding, water discharge, elevator emergency, hazardous materials, inclement weather, and other incidents - Prepares logs and reports as required Physical & Mental Physical & Mental Requirements: - With or without reasonable accommodation, the physical and mental requirements of this job may include the following: seeing, hearing, speaking, and writing clearly. Occasional reaching with hands and arms, stooping, kneeling, crouching and crawling. Frequent sitting, standing and walking, which may be required for long periods of time, and may involve climbing stairs and walking up inclines and on uneven terrain. Additional physical requirements may include, frequent lifting and/or moving up to 10 pounds and occasional lifting and/or moving up to 25 pounds. - Must be able to meet and continue to meet any applicable state, county and municipal licensing requirements for Security Officers
Located in New York Luxury Institute has made a rating of prestigious watch brands in 2010. The rating is a result of processing the survey results based on developed these institutions Luxury Brand Status Index (LBSI) - which is recognized as an objective index of the prestige of leading brands among wealthy Americans. This year's online survey (among 33 brands) involved 505 respondents with an average household income of $ 845,000 and investment assets of $ 16.6 millions. Brands were measured by quality, exclusivity, social status and self-enhancemen.
As a result, the top 10 most prestigious watch brands as follows:
2. Vacheron Constantin
8. Van Cleef & Arpels
9. Harry Winston
10. Franck Muller