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WW1-Era Shipwrecks To Receive Protection


July 28th 1914 was a day that changed the world forever.

A global war was declared that would last for four long, bloody years and would cost Humanity millions of lives. Although the images of the gruelling, inhuman trench warfare that was waged in France are the perhaps most indelible from the conflict, it should also be remembered that an awful amount of lives were also lost at sea.

Britain alone lost over a thousand vessels from 1914 - 1919, together with about 89,300 sailors and merchant navy personnel. Germany lost hundreds of warships, as well as about 35,000 sailors. In addition, civilians were also caught in the ocean-going crossfire, as a German submarine sank the liner Lusitania in 1915, killing almost 2000 people in the process.

As we approach the centenary of the First World War, the seafloors are littered with the stark, skeletal remains of vessels leftover from this conflict. In recent years, however, these ruined ships have come under an increased level of threat from salvage teams, looters and profiteers, many of whom are intent on destroying the wrecks outright.

Shipwrecks such as those left over from the First World War, are a target for two main reasons. Firstly, they can be commercially exploited for scrap metals (and other artefacts) and secondly, fishing trawlers dredging the ocean depths in search of deep-sea fish can impact the ships, destroying them altogether.

In 2011 alone, three British cruisers, the final resting place of about 1,500 sailors altogether, were completely destroyed because copper and bronze had reached sufficiently high prices as to make such destructive salvage exercises profitable.

However, because the 100th anniversary of World War One begins this year, more and more of these ships will be protected by Unesco's 2001 'Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage', an agreement that extends International protection to shipwrecks over 100 years old.

Many people worry that these laws will prove difficult to enforce, however. Others still are worried that this move will increase the destruction of shipwrecks from more recent times, in particular, vessels from World War Two (1939 - 1945), before they come under Unesco's protection.

Today, historians are attempting to use the centenary of the First World War as a way to educate people about the history and legacy of the conflict, as well as to demonstrate the cultural and historical importance of these undersea war graves. Many, including this writer, feel that such sites are deserving of our respect and reverence.

Shipwrecks also provide a very good habitat for local marine life and can even form the basis for coral reefs (if left undisturbed for long enough). These vessels are also studied for scientific interest, with experiments carried out on everything from metal erosion to marine biology.

At the time of writing, the British Government has failed to sign the convention.


http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/scie nce-environment-28056244

Examples of Lateral Communication?


The term 'here' can actually mean (at least) two different things.

In the natural world, lateral communication occurs whenever a group of animals appear to exhibit a collective intelligence. For example, when a flock of birds turns at the exact same time, remaining in perfect formation, this is lateral communication. Other examples include shoals of fish acting in perfect synch, or the movements of ant colonies.

In the business world, however, the term 'lateral communication' denotes something else entirely. In modern business, lateral communication is all to do with hierarchy. An example of lateral communication occurs when two workers on the same level discuss ideas (e.g. a manager talking to a manager). Its opposite term, 'diagonal communication', occurs when communication is initiated between different levels of hierarchy (e.g. talking to your boss' boss, or your boss talking to you).

From Wikipedia:

"The term lateral communication can be used interchangeably as horizontal communication. In his text entitled "Organizational Communication," Michael J. Papa defines horizontal communication as "the flow of messages across functional areas at a given level of an organization" (Papa and Daniels 55). With this system people at the same level are permitted "to communicate directly without going through several levels of organization" (Papa and Daniels 55). Given this elasticity, members within an organization have an easier time with "problem solving, information sharing across different work groups, and task coordination between departments or project teams" (Papa and Daniels 56). The use of lateral or horizontal communication in the workplace "can also enhance morale and afford a means for resolving conflicts (Koehler et al., 1981) (Papa and Daniels 56)."

The pawns, on the other hand, can only converse one space at a time and only in one direction. Oh wait; I'm getting confused again!

I hope that helps you, Sarah-Jane. I am unsure as to which definition you were looking for, so I focussed on both. If you have any follow-up questions, drop me a line the usual way and I'll try to get back to you as soon as I can.

you can obtain the original article here

What are some first-rate wireless headsets for the aerobics studio?


Suppose if you can, a pleasant trip to the shops on the warm summer's day. This isn't a pressure packed, hunger-enthused outing to your local supermarket followed by the bitter discovery of the fact that bastards have put their prices up AGAIN...I said this was a pleasing trip. You head out into the warm, bright summer time afternoon searching for milk, some eggs and maybe a little treat for yourself. You slide your iPod from the compartment and...and...Wait a minute, the cables all twisted up.

Hold on.

Gimme a moment.




Through the time you have untangled the wires, you are no longer in a nice mood for a walk, you've abandoned that spur-of-the-moment trip to the recreational area you were toying with and also you don't desire to listen to any music whatsoever. Actually, it is too damned hot for any of that. You don't desire a nice, healthful tossed garden salad or Spanish omelette for dinner, you will just swing by the local grease trap on the way home. Besides, there's bills to pay for and housework to accomplish and arguments to find together with your partner. Have you even cancel the trip to the shops altogether. The milk isn't that lumpy after all and you can also make a perfectly serviceable Spanish omelette out of flour, water and spaghetti hoops, correct?

Avoiding this sort of thing occouring to you, you may want to try guided meditation, counseling, or self help guides which can prevent little things like a jumbled headset cable sending you spiralling into a profound, murky depression. But, if we can't be troubled with all that New Age hocus pocus, then why get a pair of Bluetooth in ear headphones?

Bluetooth in ear headphones don't require a cable, all you do is slide http://www.bestbuy.com/site/Au dio/iPod-MP3-Players/abcat0201 000.c?id=abcat0201000 the tiny beauties from your pouch, pop them into your ears and enjoy the ride.

Envisage our small sun-dappled scenario again, now without the cable fiasco.

Your walk is pleasing and comfy, the warm sun gently caresses your face and there does not look to be a cloud in the sky. A beautiful member of the female smiles at you (no doubt drawn to your magnificent range of headsets) and everything appears right within the world. Perhaps a tossed garden http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I Pod_Touch salad becomes dinner and dancing? Perhaps a quick flutter on the lottery becomes a mansion and a pool house. Who knows?

I'll freely admit that not any of the situations above are particularly probable, but, I'll furthermore say that having a set of Bluetooth in earheadsets, at least the cables won't get knotted inside your pouch and annoy you on the daily basis. Which has to be worth something, right?

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